Advance User Management Commands In Linux With Examples

Chsh : This command is used to change the default shell for a user account or you even can remove the shell from an account in case it is not required.

1 : Print the available shells in the system.

# chsh -l

2 : Change your default login shell . Run below command. chsh will accept the full pathname of any executable file on the system. However, it will issue a warning if the shell is not listed in the /etc/shells file

# chsh -s 'shell_absolute_path' 'username'

3 : Set a user account as no login from shell.

# chsh -s /bin/false 'username'

Su : This command is used to switch between user accounts or run a command with substitute user account or id.

1 : Switch to root account. simply run 'su' or 'su -' and give password for root.

# su -

2 : Switch login to another user account, run below command.

# su -l 'username'

3 : Switch to a non-login system/user account, run below command.This command required root access.

# su -s /bin/bash 'system_account_name'

4 : Pass command to the shell other then default one with any user, run below command. User must have sudo access.

# sudo su -s /shell/absoulte/path usrname 'commands'

Example :

# sudo su -s /bin/sh akay -c 'ls | sort > /home/test/test.txt'

Groupadd : The 'groupadd' command creates a new group account using the values specified on the command line plus the default values from the system

1 : Create a new group , run below command from terminal.

# groupadd 'group_name'

2 : Create a new group with specified GID , run below command from terminal.

# groupadd -g 'GID_value' 'group_name'

Example :

# groupadd -g 1600 database

3 : If you are creating a group with an existing GID number then run below command to choos sytem automatically a GID with success and dont through error.

# groupadd -f -g 'GID_value' 'group_name'

Groupdel : The 'groupdel' command will delete a group from system.

# groupdel 'group_name'

Groupmod : The 'groupmod' command modifies the definition of the specified GROUP by modifying the appropriate entry in the group database.

1 : Run below command if you want to change groupname.

# groupmod -n 'newname' 'oldname'

2 : Run below command if you want to change the GID of an existing group.

# groupmod -g 'GID_value' 'group_name'

Groups : The 'groups' command can be use to check the assigned groups to a user.

# groups

Gpasswd : This command utility is use to administer the /etc/gshadow and /etc/groups files. With this command you can manage the groups for users , create an administrator for a particular group and allow him/her to manage that group. He will be able to add or remove any user from that group and manage permissions for that group.Every group can have administrators, members and a password

1 : Define an administrator for a group.Only used by root user.

# gpasswd -A 'user_name' 'group_name'

Above command will set a user as admin for specfied group.

2 : Add users as member to a specfied group.You can specify multiple user seperated by commo.Only used by root user.

# gpasswd -M 'user1,user2' 'group_name'

3 : Add users as member to a specfied group by group admin only.

# gpasswd -a 'user1,user2' 'group_name'

4 : Remove user as member from specfied group by group admin only.

# gpasswd -d 'user1' 'group_name'

5 : Set password for a group.

# gpasswd 'group_name'

Above command will prompt you to set a password for that group. After settin up a password still members can access that group without entering a password but non members have to supply the password.

Newgrp : This command is use to access any group as primary group if you are not a primary member of that group.Please supply the password if asked.

1 : login to another group for current session only

# newgrp 'group_name'

2 : login to another group with reinitialized the user's environment.

# newgrp - 'group_name'

Pwck or Grpck : These both command are used to verifiy the integrity of the users/groups and authentication information. It checks that all entries in /etc/passwd , /etc/group , /etc/gshadow and /etc/shadow have the proper format and contain valid data. The user is prompted to delete entries that are improperly formatted or which have other uncorrectable errors

# pwck /etc/passwd

# pwck /etc/shadow

# grpck /etc/gshadow

# grpck /etc/group

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